Case Study of Donald; Donald is a 62-year-old male who has been experiencing frequent urination and trouble starting to urinate for several weeks. He has a family history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Donald’s BMI is 29, he occasionally drinks alcohol and coffee, and his diet consists mainly of red meat, starches, and dairy products.  Just yesterday, he had an episode of incontinence and decided to seek care immediately. Donald was referred to a urologist who suspected that his prostate was the cause of his urinary issues.

Which of the following conditions could be causing Donald’s urinary symptoms? (Select all that apply.)

Erectile dysfunction
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Prostate cancer
Urinary tract infection


Case Study of Donald; QUESTION 12

Briefly explain how Donald’s prostate could be related to his inability to urinate normally.




Which of the following statements is true?

BPH increases the risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is typically diagnosed in men under 40 years of age.
Early prostate cancer may cause no symptoms at all.
Both prostate cancer and BPH often cause radiating pain into the lower extremities, bilaterally.



Donald’s urologist performs a digital rectal exam and finds the surface of the prostate to be hard and many nodules are present. Based on these findings, which of the following is most likely?

Prostate cancer
Kidney stones


Explain what a prostate-specific antigen test is and how it could be helpful for Donald.





“Watchful waiting” is a treatment approach commonly used in cases involving the prostate. Explain what this means and why it is used.




Medications like alpha-blockers may help relieve Donald’s symptoms by:

Relaxing the muscles at the base of the bladder.
Increasing the amount of urine filtered through the kidneys.
Increasing blood pressure
Diluting the urine’s concentration



Donald’s physician recommends a surgery called “transurethral resection of the prostate”. Briefly describe how this procedure is performed. Be sure to use anatomical terms.




If Donald is diagnosed with prostate cancer, his treatment will depend on the stage of the cancer. Which of the following is true?

Early stages of cancer are always metastatic.
Cancer staging is measure by three factors- tumor size and location, lymph node involvement, and metastasis.
Prostate cancer that involves lymph nodes is the earliest stage of cancer.
Tumors that are classified as T1 always cause urinary symptoms.



Donald is experiencing urinary symptoms, but prostate conditions can also interfere with the male reproductive system. Which of the following statements is true?

Donald should be worried about developing erectile dysfunction, as it is a common side effect of prostate enlargement.
Prostate enlargement can impair a male’s ability to produce sperm.
Some forms of prostate enlargement, such as prostate cancer, can occlude the ejaculatory duct and cause painful ejaculation.
Early stages of prostate cancer often occlude the epididymis, blocking the transportation of sperm.

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