Condition options: Osteosporosis, Schizophrenia, HTN,Pericarditis, Heart failure

Instructions: Please choose one adult health condition learned in the course. Once the health condition is chosen, you are to write a three-to-five-page paper in APA format 7th edition with the following sections and level 2 headings:


-Brief overview of adult health

-Introduce the disease condition chosen

-Importance of understanding the condition

Presentation of Condition

-Describe the condition chosen and its pathophysiology.

-What signs/symptoms are identified in the patient that can be found?

-Identify if there can be presentation variations based on culture, race, ethnicity, age, etc.

Diagnosis of Condition

-Diagnostic testing (include imaging, labs, and other necessary evaluations based on condition)

-Clinical evaluation via medical history and physical examination

Treatment of Condition



-Managing symptoms (if needed)

-Non-pharmacological treatments (if applicable)

Potential Health Risks if Left Untreated

-Physical and mental health risks

Recent Evidence-Based Advancements in Condition

-Choose one evidence-based treatment that has shown to improve condition within the last 5 years.

-Briefly summarize the treatment and results.


-Recap points discussed in paper

-Importance of management and early diagnosis (if applicable)

adult health condition learned in the course


Adult health encompasses a wide range of conditions that can affect individuals as they progress through their lifespan. These conditions often require careful management and treatment to ensure optimal health and well-being. In this paper, we will explore the condition of hypertension (HTN), its presentation, diagnosis, treatment options, potential health risks if left untreated, recent evidence-based advancements, and the importance of understanding and managing this condition.

Presentation of Condition

Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition characterized by elevated blood pressure levels in the arteries. This condition can result from various factors such as genetics, lifestyle choices, and underlying health conditions. Hypertension is often asymptomatic, meaning many individuals may not experience any noticeable symptoms. However, in some cases, individuals with hypertension may experience symptoms such as headaches, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, and dizziness.

The pathophysiology of hypertension involves an increase in the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels and organs over time, increasing the risk of complications such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.

There can be variations in the presentation of hypertension based on factors such as culture, race, ethnicity, and age. For example, certain racial and ethnic groups, such as African Americans, have a higher prevalence of hypertension and may experience more severe complications associated with the condition. Additionally, older adults are more likely to develop hypertension due to age-related changes in the cardiovascular system.

Diagnosis of Condition

The diagnosis of hypertension typically involves measuring blood pressure readings on multiple occasions to confirm elevated levels. Diagnostic testing may also include laboratory tests to assess for underlying conditions that may contribute to hypertension, such as kidney disease or hormonal imbalances. Imaging studies, such as echocardiography or ultrasound, may be performed to evaluate the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels.

Clinical evaluation via medical history and physical examination is essential in the diagnosis of hypertension. Healthcare providers will assess risk factors such as family history, lifestyle habits, and existing medical conditions. A thorough physical examination may reveal signs such as elevated blood pressure readings, abnormal heart sounds, or evidence of organ damage.

Treatment of Condition

Treatment for hypertension aims to lower blood pressure levels and reduce the risk of complications. This often involves a combination of lifestyle modifications and medication therapy.

Medications commonly prescribed for hypertension include:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Diuretics
  • Beta-blockers

In addition to medication therapy, lifestyle modifications such as adopting a healthy diet low in sodium and saturated fats, regular exercise, weight management, and stress reduction techniques are recommended to manage hypertension.

Non-pharmacological treatments may also be utilized, including biofeedback, relaxation techniques, and dietary supplements such as potassium and magnesium.

Potential Health Risks if Left Untreated

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to a range of health risks, both physical and mental. Physically, uncontrolled hypertension can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications such as heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, and kidney damage. Additionally, hypertension can contribute to cognitive decline and increase the risk of developing conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Mentally, the stress and anxiety associated with managing hypertension can impact an individual’s overall well-being and quality of life. Untreated hypertension may also lead to feelings of frustration, depression, and social isolation.

Recent Evidence-Based Advancements in Condition

One evidence-based treatment that has shown promise in improving hypertension within the last five years is the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. These medications, originally developed for the treatment of diabetes, have been found to have beneficial effects on blood pressure levels.

Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors can effectively lower blood pressure in individuals with and without diabetes. These medications work by blocking the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, leading to increased urinary excretion of sodium and subsequent reductions in blood pressure.

In addition to their blood pressure-lowering effects, SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart failure and stroke in patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors.


In conclusion, hypertension is a common and potentially serious condition that requires careful management and treatment to prevent complications and improve overall health outcomes. Early diagnosis, lifestyle modifications, and medication therapy are key components of hypertension management. Recent advancements in treatment, such as the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, offer new opportunities for improving blood pressure control and reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. It is essential for healthcare providers and individuals alike to understand the importance of managing hypertension effectively to optimize health and well-being.

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