Prevalently, the common understanding particularly in late 1980s was that both boys and girls were cognitively born the same. However, as they grew up differences began to be noticed, in that the male gender could be seen as more hardy when compared to females. This could be extended to boys being discouraged from crying any how simply because they were not girls. From the perception, girls could therefore grow with such a mentality of weakness while boys could see themselves as physically strong. The notion has therefore initiated the difference between the two genders in the society up to today.  All because of the manner in which parents and the society at large treated the two from their tender age.

Since male gender has been given a higher status in most of the cultures, they have been also are perceived as good leaders. And more likely to be given leadership positions in most of the cultures when compared to women, for instance, women usually hold about 20 percent of the basic elected positions as well as the appointed political positions worldwide. Similarly, there are more men compared to women in leadership positions, mainly in high-level organizational roles, in different kinds of businesses. Consequently, Women are rarely promoted to leadership positions compared to men in real working groups, even if the actual performance is put into consideration. All because of the foundation laid by the parents that men are stronger than women. 

A number of reviews as well as meta-analyses on the conformity and leadership in both men and women have been conducted. This has paved a way to draw strong conclusions in this regard. In regard to conformity, overall conclusion indicates that the differences in the manner at which culture judges men and women depends on the parents initial treatment when nurturing children right from their tender age. 

Do Ghosts Exist?

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“No ghost has ever been seen by a pair of eyes,” those are the real words of the ancient historian, Thomas Carlyle. Many people will definitely agree with this statement by Thomas Carlyle, however, was Carlyle certain with his statement? People claim to have seen and even taken photos of mysterious forms of human beings, figures which roam on the earth asininely. Others don that science can give an answer to all the eccentric shapes seen by human beings.

I am not a researcher in the field or a ghost hunter to mention about any proven studies in the area which depicts the reality of ghosts but after watching horror movies, I develop a feeling of terror when I imagine of the ghosts coming to fright me. So I need to say that ghosts are just but hallucinations of our minds. In some other situations when I find myself in creepy environments, I usually get the feeling of someone following me or somewhere around the room. Also, if I was put in a surrounding blindfolded with creepy and gale-force sounds, I am very sure that I would visualize ghosts’ surrounding me. I therefore think that our minds are capable of playing artifices on us. So it is clear that when we are afraid, we are likely to hallucinate about ghosts. Perhaps, the capacity of hallucinations is high in some people to a point of hearing, seeing or even drawing inferences. I also believe that a person who beliefs in the existence of ghosts is more likely to see them than a person who does not belief in their existence (Debet et al. 1452). 

If someone finds himself believing in the existence of ghosts, he or she should not be worried simply because it is a belief many people have. Different cultures all over the world do belief in supernatural spirits that have survived death and now living in another kingdom. In fact, those beings with supernatural powers are amongst the most believed paranormal phenomenon. For instance, the Harris poll conducted in the year 2013 found that 43 percent of the Americans believed in the existence of ghosts (Gallup & Gordon, 234).

The belief in the reality of ghosts is out of the idea that people who die remain with us in spirit. This notion has appeared in a number of stories from Bible to Quran It has even laid a folklore genre: the ghost stories. The certainty in ghosts can be grouped in a web of interrelated paranormal beliefs which include but not limited to life after dying, spirit communication and near death experience. The belief usually offer comfort to many people who don’t want to believe that their beloved ones who passes away are not looking after them or being with them in the times of difficulties (Kus et al., 71).

Incidences of people communicating with spirits are not rare; for instance, in Victorian England, it was very normal for upper scab ladies to embrace séances in their respective parlors after taking infusion and crumpets with colleagues. In U.S also, late 1800s, a number of psychosomatic mediums appealed to have been speaking with dead people although they were later uncovered as just mere frauds by cynical investigators of the time (Montero & Barbara, 342).

Many people belief in the existence of unnatural beings because of subjective experiences; they were raised up in an environment where existence of ghosts was normal or they have gone through a frightening encounter on a ghost excursion. Conversely, a number of people have a notion that reality of ghosts is more of hard science and modern physics. Albert Einstein once proposed a scientific platform for the existence of ghosts which he gave the title “First Law of Thermodynamics:” in his law, he put across that energy can neither be destroyed nor created but can only change its form, so what takes place on the energy vested in a person when he dies? Could that be exhibited as ghost? (Otis et al., 77)

The argument by this scientist is more like a rational assumption, unless one understands the rudimentary physics. The response is straight forward and not in any way enigmatic. When a human being dies, the energy contained in his body goes into the environment. Then the available energy is emitted in heat form while the rest of body is eaten by other organisms like bacteria. Therefore, no energy survives at all after the death of a person to be spotted by the ghost hunting expedients (Van & Bryan, 453).

It is therefore clear that, while the so called ghost hunters imagine themselves to be on the top gear in the ghost existence research, they are only appealing on what can be simply termed as legend tripping or ostension. A basic form of fantasy in which actors act out a fairytale, often entailing supernatural powers or ghosts; in his book “Aliens, Ghosts, and Cults: Legends We Live”, Bill Ellis argues out that hunters of ghosts take the research earnestly and “venture out to challenge supernatural beings, confront them in consciously dramatized form, then return to safety. … The stated purpose of such activities is not entertainment but a sincere effort to test and define boundaries of the ‘real’ world.” (Gallup & Gordon, 234).

If ghosts were real and sort of yet strange energy, their reality would have been already exposed and substantiated by the scientists through tests not by ghost hunters who just wander around demarcated houses late at the night and in the darkness with flashlights and cameras. 

In the end, regardless of many ambiguous photos, videos as well as sounds on the subject, the proof for existence of supernatural beings is no better at the moment than it was years ago, decades ago or even centuries ago. This may be due to some two reasons. The first reason is, ghosts don’t exist, and therefore the reports given on ghosts can only be expounded through psychology, hoaxes, misperceptions and mistakes. The second reason is, ghosts do exist but ghost hunters who have been in the field of ghost research are incompetent and therefore more science should be brought into the field for effectiveness purposes (Gallup & Gordon, 234).

Eventually, ghost hunting cannot be perceived to have aimed at providing evidence on the existence of ghosts, otherwise the research should have been concluded long time ago. Instead, it can be seen as all about fun, storytelling and enjoyment with friends while assuming to be in research of the strange phenomenon. After all, no one who doesn’t like listening to the good ghost stories.